Studies on assessment of ESL/EFL demonstrate a divergence between the measures of language proficiency and the authentic communicative proficiency necessary in actual communicative interaction. As a result, the progress towards authentic, performance-based appraisal in ESL/EFL reading comprehension attempts to accomplish a more suitable and legitimate depiction of learner communicative reading proficiencies than that realized from standardized objective assessments. However, there are several problems with the utilization of performance-based appraisal measures. It would be appropriate to consider three difficulties apply in this case. Firstly, there is the issue of obtaining dependable results, inter-rater reliability. Assessors of performance-based appraisal tasks require training in order to conform to a recognized set of ranking criteria. This kind of preparation, however, does not guarantee consistency given that assessors may construe the criteria in dissimilar approaches.

The second issue concerns the sufficiency of the sample of indicators considered signifying authentic performance. The array of performances in the knowledge sphere being tested ought to be sufficiently covered in order to guarantee authenticity of assessment. The representativeness of the appraisal, in order to capture authentic performance, might require an extensive testing phase that is not viable in several educational contexts. The third issue concerns generalization and transfer. This addresses the problem of whether the tasks carried out in the authentic assessment relate to other educational experiences.

Rationale

            Education is face with the challenge of preparing every learner for life in the contemporary times. This encompasses those students whom English is not their first language. The ESL students carry with them a broad range of experiences, languages, and cultures which enrich their host societies and schools. Whereas their cultural and linguistic backgrounds differ greatly, every ESL student shares the adjustment challenge to a new culture. They need to continue with their education in an unfamiliar environment. It is imperative to understand that these students aspire to accomplish their personal, educational, social as well as, long-term professional goals. The ESL students require communicating with others effectively, appropriately, and skillfully in English. They can achieve this partly in the course of an ESL programme that is designed purposely to deal with their needs.

It is important to note that, ESL students are frequently assumed to have satisfactory English to cope with the standard programme. This is mainly because they have attained an apparent oral fluency. Studies have shown that ESL students who take part in reliable and well planned ESL programmes stay in school longer. The studies also show that these students attain considerably higher rates of scholastic achievement than students with no such advantages.

Protocol for an Authentic Performance Assessment Task

            A major problem of ESL learners is that their acquaintance of the language is imperfect, and this causes serious difficulties with some texts. A fundamental distinction between ESL learners and native speakers is that the latter utilize knowledge of the language to facilitate them to read while the former utilizes reading to assist them learn the language. An assessment plan for the ESL students ought to be developed by the ESL tutor in cooperation with the relevant classroom teacher. The evaluation plan should also be communicated to the parents as well as the student. School reporting protocols such as progress reports, report cards, teacher-parent interviews, as well as grading practices, also require careful explanation to parents and students. The process of appraisal comprises any task a student executes in order to show ability or knowledge in the relevant subject area. The teacher ought to utilize as many tools as possible on as many instances as possible to ascertain valid and consistent indicators of the students’ attainment and progress.

Below is a suitable set of rules;

 

  1. Reporting for EFL/ESL learners must take place at regular reporting periods.
  2. ESL/EFL tutors should present a report on the students’ growth in English at expected reporting periods.
  3. Numbers or letter scores should not be utilized. Assigning failing scores to a learner who is incapable to participate fully in the course owing to lack of background education or English is not recommended.
  4. An anecdotal or comment insert should be used instead of a number. A letter a must be included to report to the parents of:

a)      The topics covered

b)      The student’s participation

c)      The observed achievement or progress in the subject area

  • Suppleness is required, while the student’s best interests are considered. This approach is intended to facilitate that student build self-confidence and cheer up in the new environment.
  • In the event that a student falls short of meeting the stipulated success benchmarks, this must be clarified to the students as well as the parent prior to the reporting time.

Assessment Guidelines for Teachers

The following evaluation practices are useful for ESL students:

  1. Present clear instruction and clarify the task.
  2. Provide demonstrations, mock-ups, or models.
  3. Assess comprehension in a multiplicity of approaches.
  4. Propose steps to assist in executing a project as well as scrutinize the student’s advancement.
  5. Provide options in topics as well as in presentation designs.
  6. Make certain that points marked for language inaccuracy are not subtracted in the content area assessment.
  7. Allocate supplementary time for in-class assignments or tests.
  8. Make available a bilingual, learner’s or children’s dictionary.
  9. Make certain that ESL teachers or members of the ESL panel are present throughout formal examinations.
  10. Utilize oral assessments, conferencing or interviews.
  11. Include evaluations that are less reliant on written language such as multiple choice items, pictures, diagrams, and graphs.

Assessment Criteria for Language

            The table below provides an indication of requisite skills level at grades one to three. These indicators are designed as a checklist. They may be utilized as a point of reference while reporting. Each description in an indicator commences with an underscores to ease its utilization as a checklist. The points highlighted are not intended as a comprehensive listing of outcomes but present key benchmarks. These points are indicators of the proficiency level anticipated at every stage.

  Listening Speaking
Stage 1: Novice.

Understands basic spoken English Speaks for basic

Communication.

  • Responds to yes/no questions.
  • Responds appropriately to familiar conversational topics
  • Responds to familiar vocabulary
  • Responds to basic classroom commands
  • Responds to simple wh questions
  • Utilizes functional vocabulary.
  • Uses short patterned questions.
  • Communicates basic wants/needs and basic personal information.
  • Answers specific questions using single words or short phrases.
Stage 2: Developing.

Comprehends key information with supports Speaks with spontaneity in daily conversation and in class.

  • Participates in conversations on familiar topics.
  • Responds to day-to-day vocabulary, direct questions, frequently used commands, simple stories, concepts of learned themes and some humor.
  • Asks for explanations when necessary.
  • Follows simple instructions.
  • Is attentive to modified teacher talk and demonstrates understanding
  • Initiates and maintains daily conversation.
  • Participates with some fluency.
  • Recounts familiar events & key information.
  • Speaks with sufficient clarity for teacher comprehension.
  • Uses known vocabulary & gestures to compensate for unfamiliar vocabulary.
  • Expresses preferences and feelings.
  • Begins to use variety of vocabulary; wh questions, verb tenses, completes simple sentences and some compound (conjunctions: but, and, because).
  • Uses common adjectives, adjective prepositions
Stage 3: Expanding.

Comprehends social English, needs supports for grade level

Academic listening Participates

Comfortably socially and in

class, may have minor  difficulties /misunderstandings

in oral expression.

  • Responds appropriately to questions, directions, extended discourse.
  • Responds appropriately in sustained discussions in class.
  • Identifies key ideas supporting details with repetition.
  • Identifies key ideas and many supporting details of the content area presentation.
  • Sustains attention in the regular classroom environment.
  • Demonstrates understanding of much grade-level academic and subject specific vocabulary.
  • Uses clear pronunciation and enunciation.
  • Asks and answers a range of questions without hesitation.
  •  Contributes in classroom discussions.
  • Begins to use the simple past, present, future tenses appropriately.
  • Clearly retells personal experience stories and basic factual information.
  • Utilizes wh questions.
  • Uses some basic difficult sentences (example After___, ___. When___, ___.)
Stage 4: Consolidating.

Comprehends spoken English in most contexts at grade level

Speaks fluently, almost native like in vocabulary and sentence structure.

  • Participates in most social discussions.
  • Responds to complex sentences.
  • Follows a series of teaching instructions.
  • Rarely takes wait time to respond.
  • Understands academic content with visual support.
  • Responds to unseen speakers (PA system, telephone).
  • Uses listening strategies, uses context to understand, asks for explanation or repetition, and listens attentively.
  • Uses most language structures correctly to grade level.
  • Self-corrects some mistakes for clarification.
  • Uses a variety of age-appropriate expressions.
  • Capable to express and explain an opinion.
  • Participates in regular class discussion confidently and appropriately.
  • Uses simple past, present, future tenses appropriately.
  • Uses speaking strategies; uses appropriate, specific vocabulary, states main idea clearly and initially uses new words learned.

 

Specific Curriculum Outcomes

            ESL’s specific curriculum outcomes identify what learners are anticipated to know and be capable to do upon conclusion of the course. Lesson and unit planning ought to be balanced to offer a variety of experiences that would address each outcome. Tutorial practices ought to be designed to offer a variety of prospects for learners to accomplish these outcomes. Specific curriculum outcomes include all language proficiencies. Below is a list of specific curriculum outcomes.

  1. Point out recognition of directionality of print as well as front to rear of a book.
  2. Calculate the amount of words in a print line.
  3. Identify and name the majority letters in the Roman alphabet.
  4. Match lower and upper case letters.
  5. Match sounds to salient starting consonants.
  6. Identify a number of words in print and link them to pictures or objects in the immediate surroundings.
  7. Discern individual words in a precise simple sentence.
  8. Print their names.
  9. Print every letter of the alphabet.
  10. Fill out a form with elementary personal information.

 

Formative Discussion Groups
Formative as well as diagnostic insights and data, may come from a variety of activities usually connected to education. These are activities like classroom questioning as well as feedback, peer assessment and group work on a piece of formerly assessed tasks, from summative evaluation outcomes and from interim or draft assessments:

The students should organize a list of twenty questions based on a topic they listened to on the news bulletin or in a document. The students should be placed in small groups. Every student will be required to direct a small group debate that will be based on the questions. A checklist or grid should be utilized to evaluate the students’ aptitude. This would be in explaining a topic to their group, to generate insightful questions, to engage members of their group in the discussion, to structure questions correctly, to develop members’ contributions as well as express their own opinions and ideas plainly to the group.

 

Every participant is required to fill out the assessment questionnaire.

Your name:

Your Assessments

  1. Reflecting on the assessments to what extent did any specific assessment scheme(s) (e.g. rating scales, checklists, research instruments, etc.) persuade you in assessing the compositions? Please circle the number that best corresponds to your answer.
  • 1 not at all
  • 2
  • 3 Slightly
  • 4
  • 5 A great deal
  1. If you designate any degree of persuasion, please illustrate the extent and nature of that persuasion.
  2. Name three qualities you believe are necessary for effective writing in the perspective of a composition assessment?