It is important for developers to have a planning process for almost every project they undertake. This planning process will discuss on the type of development that takes place in any site and consequently influence the worth of the development. The main hindrance is that the planning process contributes to uncertainty in the development in terms of delays, unpredictable decisions and an increase in the cost. This research will pay special attention to the UK planning system because it is one of the most sophisticated in the world. According to the Bakers Review of Land use planning In the UK, the system has undergone a series of changes that have improved the process.
Planning Application
Anyone carrying out a development project must seek out the necessary consent for the project. They must draft an application to the local planning authority mostly the district council for permission. It is important for one to determine if seeking permission is mandatory for the project unless the project falls under the General development Orders. If it is not clear whether permission is necessary, it is important to approach the planning authority body for advice. The body must give their decision in a few weeks and one has the right to appeal on the decisions made by the body. If the applicant is not the owner of the land, it is necessary to secure a free holders lease that allows them to operate on the land for a period not less than seven years. It is important to note that the planning authority has a set of notices that inform the land user on the guidelines to follow. If an application will hinder or interfere with the neighbors, the authoritative body will involve them on the changes and they will give their opinion. The leases talk of aspects such as the height of the building to be built. There are a number of application forms, which a person can draft.
One of them is the outline planning application that tries to establish the standard of an exacting form of increase outside conservation areas. In such a form matters such as the design, location and landscaping of the project need no discussion at that moment. A full or detailed application on the other hand tackles all aspects of the project including the landscaping and design of the project. Here, the layout of the roads and houses near the project are discussed in relation to the proposed project. One can also apply for changes of Use form as stated in the class act (Praising Law Institute, 1999).
A developer trying to develop an engineering project should seek outline consent. This will clearly explain the principle of the development project. The choice of whether to give a full detailed or less detailed outline will depend on the legal interests of the developer, the issues involved in the project, and the location of the site for the project. The outline needs to give detailed information on the size and type of the development project. The planning may choose whether to accept the project and sometimes they issue out conditions to an outline. The forms normally cost a given amount of money depending on the stated act of that particular country. In the UK such an act is stated under section 303 of the Town and Planning Act.
After submission of the form, the authority consults with other bodies such as the Highway authority on the construction of roads or a hospital management system could give their views on the possibility of noise that may come from the new project. The authority will ensure that no highway regulations go unnoticed and that fire regulations and all other matters that may be related to the onset of the project are evaluated before the project begins. The planning authority will also seek discussions with the necessary water bodies in respect to sewers before making their final decision.
At some point during the investigation, the authority body may hold talks with the client to discuss points that require mote explanations or discuss on the problems that have revealed themselves through the inquiry. Here one is required to make modest corrections to the project if necessary because projects that are more radical may lead to the development of a new consultation form. Below is a diagram of the planning process that takes place in England.

Picture 1: The above diagram is for the Planning Process of England
The diagram above is simple of explanation of the topic discussed.
Environmental Impact Assessment
This section of the planning determines the impact of the project on the environment on a very wide perspective. These effects include ecology, geology, effects on the landscape, air and water pollution, noise pollution, land contamination and endangerment of wildlife. Some projects require a lot of assessment. These projects include those of oil refineries and primary power stations. A developer may apply for the environmental impact evaluation before the formal planning application. It is necessary to consult the relevant planning officer before the formal application is done. This saves on a lot of time and energy. If after 8 weeks the client does not receive word from them then the client is at liberty to either appeal or accept the idea that the proposal did not push through.
The definite sensitivity that is connected with requests for development within distinct Conservation locations or affecting scheduled buildings comes up because of the special security given to such locations and structures by the planning legislation. The Planning authorities have the powers to describe Conservation locations i.e. areas of distinct architectural or historic awareness that it is admirable to preserve or improve, and this procedure can take place in association with the grounding of a local arrangement or UDP or in its individual right. Once defined, all major planning applications for expansion within the region must be thorough and, as set out above, split applications must be made for any “demolition.
Government policy” in PPG15 is that all proposals for expansion within the maintenance Area must conserve or improve its nature. Other bodies such as the advertising controls board give regulations to help govern the type of advertising put up and whether it is appropriate considering the level of investigation that has taken place.
Planning obligation
While the authoritative power prepares the rules and policies to establish how the planning framework for a place will be, this alone will not bring about the establishment of the development project. Implementation of the program depends upon the land developers and owners who come up with development proposals within the planning location. After preparation of the planning frame, work the planning authority wait for the land developers and owners to come and present their proposals as well as state their planning applications. In addition to the ability of the planners to connect certain conditions to the grant for allowance, it is also possible for the planners to sign up legally binding agreements with land developers, that give way for development proposals to come forward, and in some instances where the legal planning authorities could no longer depend on their statutory powers, that is planning conditions.
If developers feel that the planning authority is trying to put unnecessary pressure on them, to join agreements that will bring about unduly onerous problems, their solution is to make a formal planning application and take the issue up for appeal if they do not receive permission from the body. It is necessary to note that it is to the advantage of the developers if they give out their own planning obligation in order to hurry up the onset of the project.

Breaches of planning control

Regular planning authorities have a lot of powers to determine that no development that needs planning consent takes place, and that no unregistered uses are permitted to carry on unless the planning situation is regulated and that all necessary development allowed are carried out in agreement with the circumstances that the authority has put in place to the permission. These powers are present in the 1990 Act and briefly explained in their “Policy Guidance Note”. Where development has already taken place without permission the local authorities are empowered to firstly get information about the development, the image of the possessor of the land being discussed about and other important matters to be divulged to them.

They can then send an enforcement message to the landowner that talks about the breach of planning control, the action necessary to solve the breach and a time limit to undertake the sufficient responsibilities. An individual has a right of appeal against the notice given to him on one of seven grounds. The most stated ground is that, planning permission should have been given for the development under discussion, and the laying down of an appeal on that ground is considered by the section of the Environment (who considers the appeal) as seen as a planning application. Other grounds include, explaining that the stated breach has not occurred place and that the process required by the local planning authority to correct the problem are unreasonable. It is important to note that incase the local authority does not grant permission to the project, there is room for an appeal.

The Future
The local planning system is a slave to the political and legislative system. It is very hard to predict the future. The development industry is mostly displeased with the delays and high levels of uncertainty that it goes through and sometimes the ad hoc nature of the decisions made, essentially where local politics has the upper hand and can sway over professional logic. Various proposals have been underlined to make the system better than in previous times. The current cyclic trend is for the increase in population growth in England, increased globalization, and economic movement of peoples from one region to another, and increased want to adapt, and to alleviate the impacts of climate change.
Some recommendations include
1) Straightening policies and process by reducing policy guidance, and uniting the convent regimes. Changing the local levels so that the development plans for the future take a shorter time, instead of the usual three years or more.

2) Introducing a new way of dealing with projects that involve major infrastructure. This program should be based around the idea by national statements of an independent commission.
3) To ensure that projects that do not take place in town are carried out in their most professional manner.
4) Remove the want for small commercial developments that have a minor impact on the development of towns and cities.
5) Speeding up the appeal process not only to save on time and money but to ensure that the required processes are carried out on time.